In April 1861 the President directed all officers of the regular army to renew their oaths of allegiance; and several were dismissed for refusing to comply.
In May the War Department directed that $2.50 per month should be allowed for clothing, in the volunteer service. This was modified later in the month by making it the same as for the regular army.
In May, also, a company of infantry was defined to be as follows:
1 captain, 1 captain,
1 first lieutenant, 1 first lieutenant,
1 second lieutenant, 1 second lieutenant,
1 first sergeant, 1 first sergeant,
4 sergeants, 4 sergeants,
8 corporals, 8 corporals,
2 musicians, 2 musicians,
1 wagoner, 1 wagoner,
64 privates, 82 privates,
83 aggregate. 101 aggregate.
For a regiment of infantry it was defined to be: 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant (a lieutenant), 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 assistant surgeon (but this latter was modified later in the month, by allowing 1 surgeon and 1 assistant surgeon).
In June, the War Department ordered that all sutlers be thereafter appointed by the Secretary of War. Also in June it was ordered that nurses (women) shall not reside in camp, nor accompany regiments on the march; but those who apply for service, and are highly recommended by two physicians and two clergymen of standing, and will forward such certificate to Miss Dorothea L. Dix at Washington, will be given a certificate entitling them to service in any military hospital of the U. S. where such services are required. (In August, they were authorized to be paid forty cents a day and one ration.)
In June, it was also directed that all officers entitled to forage were entitled to the quantity allowed in a state of war.
In July, the War Department directed that in future no foreigner shall be mustered in who is unable to speak the English language. This was modified in August, so that foreigners could be mustered into regiments speaking their own language; and five days later the entire matter was revoked.
In July, the War Department directed that Chaplains should be mustered-in in the same manner as other commissioned officers.
In August, the War Department ordered that no volunteer officer, who resigns, shall be again commissioned in another volunteer regiment.
In August, also, the required height of a recruit was reduced from 5 ft. 4 in. to 5 ft. 3 in.
Again, the War Department, in August, directed that officers could only be mustered as follows: When half of a company is mustered in, the first lieutenant and when full, the captain and second lieutenant can be mustered. When four companies, then the lieutenant-colonel; when six companies, the major; when all, the colonel, chaplain, surgeon, assistant surgeon, adjutant and quartermaster.
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